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Which wineries to visit in Tasmania?

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With COVID preventing international travel, I decided it was time to go and explore the wine regions of Tasmania, Australia’s smallest and most southern state. Despite exporting less than 1% of their wines, Tasmania is gaining a reputation for outstanding cool-climate wines. This, combined with global warming, has led to explosive growth in the Tasmanian wine industry, which now boasts 160 licensed producers and over 2,000 hectares of vineyards in 7 different wine regions, shown below in an image from Decanter magazine.


On the first day, we drove up the East Coast, and stopped into Spring Vale, Craigie Knowe & Freycinet for tastings and stopped at Devil’s Corner for a pizza, a glass of sparkling and to enjoy the beautiful view. The difficult drive was worth it for the spectacular scenery and delicious wines. The wineries of the East Coast produce about 20% of Tasmanian wines and are famous for pinot noir, chardonnay and riesling, however the temperature and dry conditions also provide growing conditions suitable for sauvignon blanc, pinot gris and cabernet sauvignon, which are all gaining recognition.

The second day we drove up to Pipers River to visit Delamere, where we caught staff relaxing a little after rushing to finish their harvest the day before, to beat the rains that greeted us on arrival. Contrary to popular belief, Tasmania is actually quite dry, with Hobart being the second driest capital city in the country after Adelaide. Of all Tasmania’s wine producing areas, Pipers River is the wettest, and Delamere did acknowledge that they needed to be attentive to disease risks. That said, the climate suits their sparkling wines so well that they are putting most of their efforts towards sparkling production, and they’re being rewarded for their efforts. I was very impressed with the wines, and indeed every other winery we visited said that Delamere was their favourite sparkling producer. Other wineries in the region are also well known for sparkling wines, including Jansz, Clover Hill & Arras (Bay of Fires).


After lunch we stopped at Josef Chromy (below), a well-known producer located in the Tamar Valley. We were told that Josef Chromy possess vineyards just 2 plots deep, but running 2.5km from their cellar door and winery to the south. Near the winery, their lower plots produce aromatic whites, and their upper slopes have perfect soil for the pinot noir and chardonnay that go into their sparkling, while to the south the soil becomes more rocky, and grows the grapes for their table wines.

 

On our final day we visited Stefano Lubiana in Derwent Valley, and then Pooley in Coal River Valley. Both of these regions have the right combination of temperature, humidity and soils to produce exceptional pinot noir, and they also produce notable sparklings and other table wines.



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["blo_datetime"]=> string(19) "2021-03-26 08:21:38" ["blo_title"]=> string(42) "Have you heard about sunscreen for grapes?" 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The first time I saw white vines due to sunscreen, was here in Barossa Valley, at the first winery where I worked. I was very impressed with this whole idea, so I have done a lot of research on this topic, and today I would like to share a little bit of this knowledge with you.

"You put sunscreen on your kids when they go out in the sun, so we put it on our grapevines. That just goes on like a normal spray", says Bruce Tyrrell, the chief executive of Tyrrell's Wines.

Tyrrell is a winery located in Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia, that has been producing wine since the 1860’s. Mr Bruce Tyrrell realized several years ago that he would need to find ways to ensure that his grapes could survive in Australia's increasingly hot and dry climate. Then, over five years ago, the winery decided to adopt the so-called “Agricultural Sunscreen”.

So what is “Agricultural sunscreen”?

To start, let's talk about the ozone layer above Australia, which has a strong impact on the UV rays transmitted to the grapes. Australians have known about a “hole in the ozone layer above Australia” for years. Technically, the ozone layer around the mid-latitude is depleted above Australia, and a hole often occurs above Antarctica during Spring. The result of both of these, for Australia, is more UV radiation reaching the Earth, which is why many winegrowers take the decision to protect their vines with “Agricultural Sunscreen” in the years where temperatures exceed 45 degrees Celsius.

Very high temperatures can cause serious damage to the vineyards, and fruit can shrivel or suffer sunburn. High temperatures can also affect the ripening of the grapes - if the vine suffers from too much heat it begins to transpire a lot, so to protect the plant from running out of water it can stop photosynthesis, thus stopping the ripening of the grapes, making the harvest period longer or causing harvests with bitter flavours because of the lack of ripe grapes. All of these impact on the quality and yield of the vineyards.

One of the best practices to combat this problem in the vineyards is the use of a kaolin clay-based sunscreen, which helps to reflect direct sunlight or UV light, thus protecting the fruit from sunburn and damage caused by thermal stress.

According to wine grower and agronomist Warren Burgess from Langhorne Creek, Australia:

"With the range of practices that we have started to employ here, we're finding that we are mitigating some of that risk associated with some of these extreme days."

Australia once again surprises with their viticulture practices, guaranteeing the quality of its wines even in difficult years.

 

 

 

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I often find myself in discussions with wine lovers about the benefits of screw caps versus corks. These discussions can last for hours, haha. Now before I start here, I want to explain that like everything in life, both closure methods (and others not mentioned here) have their strengths and weaknesses.

Living in Australia I have learned the benefits of the screw cap, and now defend it strongly. The argument, however, should not be about the type of closure, but rather its effect on the wine.

 

So what are the effects?
Why are some wines bottled with a cork and others with a screw cap?

I work in a winery in Australia, where its two most iconic wines are premium wines where one is under cork and the other under screw cap, so people ask me these types of questions every day - hence why I wanted to write this post.

The first wine is elegant, with floral aromas and a delicate structure. While the wine benefits from the interaction of oxygen with the wine, the tertiary flavours that then develop can quickly overpower the delicate notes in this wine. A screw cap is used to provide a low OTR (Oxygen Transmission Rate), meaning that oxygen can enter and produce these tertiary flavours, but that it happens slowly, and the wine retains it delicacy longer.

The other wine is a stronger, more powerful wine, with primary flavours that aren’t easily overpowered as the wine ages. Allowing a higher OTR allows the tannins to smooth out more quickly, while adding layers of complexity to the wine. If this wine were to be put under screwcap it would need decades for the same results.

As you can see, there are good reasons why each has been put under the closure mechanism that it has. That said, it does not mean that the other option could not have been used – it would simply alter the time needed to effect the same changes to the wine. As they are, both wines have great quality and ageing potential.


Is it true that every wine under cork has ageing potential?
Are screw caps only for cheap wines, and not for wines with ageing potential?

Of course not, many inexpensive wines exist around the world under cork, plus there are different types of cork. There are some types of plastic corks and some agglomerated corks (when cork granules are glued together), that are cheaper and offer limited protection from oxygen ingress, thus are only suitable for wines to be consumed soon after purchase.

Know that there are many premium and super premium wines in Australia which are bottled with screw cap. Research by the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) shows that the screw cap ensures the continuity of wine equal to or better than the cork stopper.

It’s also good to note that different types of screw caps exist. Traditional screw caps made from tin was impermeable to oxygen, which can lead to reductive characteristics. Newer types of screw caps made from “Saran” or “Saranex” allow a small intake of oxygen that increases the OTR and allows the tertiary flavours of aged wines to slowly develop.

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This week was an intense week of Italian wine tastings, which ended up inspiring me to write this new article for my blog.

 

Whenever I publish a photo of a Nero d’Avola, Sagrantino, Fiano or similar, produced here in Australia, I always get the same questions - for example, “Do Australian wines made from Italian grape varieties have the same characteristics as wines made in Italy? It is important to start with that famous word in the wine world called “terroir”, which means that different soils, climates and wine production techniques will result in wines with different personalities and characteristics. Wines from Italy generally have a more earthy appearance, compared to wines made from Italian grapes here in Australia.

 

A large part of the success of these wines in Australia comes from the Australian winemakers, who through their own interpretation, while maintaining the characteristics of the grape, create their own unique style. Instead of comparing these wines to Italian wines when you’re drinking them, just enjoy the different sensations that a new style can offer.

 

Australia has a great diversity of soils and climates, so instead of only suiting the French varieties that were originally planted here, it is to be expected that different grapes would also be able to adapt well. And when it comes to “Global Warming”, Australia has been taking measures to minimize the effects of climate change in the vineyards, and one of them is to invest in other grape varieties. Today we can find many vineyards planted with the Sangiovese grape, for example, which is also the most planted grape in Italy. Although the number of plantations of Italian varieties is still relatively small in Australia, the trend is that this number will grow in the coming years.

 

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) reveals that climate change projections for Australia are an increase in temperature and a reduction in annual precipitation over the next 10 years. Many producers are betting on grapes that can withstand extreme heat, like grapes from southern Italy. In addition, Italian grape varieties generally have more natural acidity, so interest has grown enormously in these grape varieties here in Australia. Wine regions such as McLaren Vale, SA; King Valley, VIC; Riverland, SA and Granite Belt, QLD provide good examples of Italian grape varieties in Australia


What differentiates Australia from its competitors, is that wine producers are open to venturing out and trying new things, making Australia one of the most exciting wine countries in the world.

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In 2016 I moved to Australia, and when I arrived at the airport in Sydney, I still remember thinking that I must have hopped on the plane, and now I was in the wrong country. I’ve always had in my mind that all Australians were blond, with blue eyes and white skin - just like the English. I never imagined the diversity of cultures I was about to get to know, including one which I’ve ended up getting to know very well, because you cannot work in the Australian wine industry, without learning something about the Chinese culture.

 

To all the Chinese customers and friends who have passed through, or are still in, my life, thank you very much for sharing your culture with me, and teaching me some of your language. “Xièxiè” - Thank you

 

Working in the wine industry in Australia, I soon realized that China is an important market for Australia, not only in wine, but also in the export of other products, and education - a large number of university students studying in Australia are Chinese.

 

According to statista.com, in an article called ‘Number of Chinese students in Australia from 2010 to 2019, by education sector’ published by Thomas Hinton on July 28, 2020, “There were more than 260,000 Chinese students enrolled in Australia in 2019, with approximately 160,000 enrolled in the higher education sector alone”.

 

Since the beginning of this year, the relationship between the Australian and Chinese governments has been the cause of several newspaper and magazine articles. In the wine market, this disagreement between China and Australia, is having a huge impact, and could not have come at a worse time - 2020 has been a year of many challenges for the country.

 

We started the year with fires, which caused massive financial damage to many wine producers, then the restrictions of Covid-19, starting in the middle of the harvest, and to close with a flourish, the Chinese government launched an investigation into Australian wines that are exported to the country.

 

The CADA (China Alcoholic Drinks Association), requested the MOFCOM - Ministry of Commerce People's Republic of China - launch an Anti-Dumping investigation. This investigation began on August 18, 2020 and is expected to end in August 2021, but can be extended by another 6 months. Recently, on 27 November 2020, MOFCOM announced that the Chinese government would impose temporary ‘Anti-Dumping Security Deposits’ with rates between 107.1% and 212.1% on Australian wines, before finalizing anti-dumping investigations.

 

But what is an Anti-Dumping investigation?

 

Dumping is a process, in which a company exports a product, at a significantly lower price, than the price it normally charges in its domestic market. An anti-dumping duty is a protectionist tariff that a domestic government imposes on imported products. Goods in which, the government believes, prices are below a fair market value.

 

China is accusing Australia of selling very cheap wines to the country, and that this is hurting their domestic market. The Chinese industry body says that in the past four years, the market share of Chinese wine has dropped from around 75% to just under 50%, and that this is because the sale of Australian wine is being poured out (wines sold at low prices) to China. That is why it imposed an import deposit scheme (tariffs), ranging from 107.1% to 212.1% on Australian wines.

 

According to Wine Australia:


"We are sure, that Australian wine is not being dumped on the Chinese market, and that our winegrowers and producers do not benefit from any subsidies"

 

The curious thing is that the Chinese market is the most important market for Australia for "value" - that is, China has been the best market for the sales of Premium Wines in the country. Last year, Australian wine exports to China were valued at $1.26 billion Australian dollars. In addition, Australia exports about 60% of its total production and about 39% of that has China as its destination.

 

Australia's wine sector is fully collaborating with the investigations. The government recognizes that export growth is necessary to maintain jobs and prosperity in the Australian market.

 

Tony Battaglene, Chief Executive of Australian Grape & Wine, thinks this is a good wake-up call for Australia to develop export opportunities in other markets, and not be so reliant on China.

 

Australia needs to make a decision, as soon as possible, to protect the sector from being hit by “supply and demand”, which with nowhere for our wine to go, would drive down prices in the domestic market and have a major impact on the economy. Maybe a good plan B for Australia, is to take Mr Battaglene’s advice and look beyond different oceans… maybe towards South America..?

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["blo_datetime"]=> string(19) "2020-11-19 05:58:22" ["blo_title"]=> string(43) "Do you know the story of Australian Claret?" 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I work for a winery in Barossa Valley, which produces two fantastic wines that use Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes for their blends. The story I’m about to tell is one that I love sharing with the tourists who come to visit us and taste our wines, and today I decided to share this story with you. 



Many Australians used to refer to the Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (or Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz) blend as Claret, but the Claret nomenclature was actually the name used in Bordeaux for any red table wine. In my wanderings through various wine regions around the world, I have never come across the blend of Shiraz & Cabernet Sauvignon before and would say that it is a typical Australian blend. 

 

Cabernet Sauvignon is often used in blends - I've found several Malbec in Argentina with a percentage of Cabernet Sauvignon; many Super Toscano blends from Italy also use Cabernet Sauvignon, like Tignanello for example; one of the most famous wines in Spain, Vega Sicília Único, uses a percentage of Cabernet Sauvignon in its wines, which are predominantly made with the Tinto Fino grape; not to mention Bordeaux wines, which are also blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec, Petit Verdot and Cabernet Franc - but never Shiraz. 

 

In general, blending is used to address varietal deficiencies, by adding a wine with the missing traits. However, according to Kevin Glastonbury, winemaker at Yalumba, with this blend this is not the case at all. He explains 



"It is the case that the sum of the parts is greater than the whole". "It is about the marriage of two varieties that creates an entirely new wine." 

Kevin Glastonbury 

 

 

The term Claret refers to easy-to-drink red wines with limited skin contact and short fermentation times, that were made and exported from Bordeaux to England. In France they were called Vinum Clarum, Vin Clar or Clareit. But the British invented the term Claret, and so the nomenclature arrived in Australia. 

 

With a history that can be traced back to the late 1800s, the Yalumba winery made Claret in the 1880s and sent it to India to be enjoyed by the British Raj. In 1890, French winemaker Edmund Mazure (creator of the red Sparkling Shiraz) started his own winery and made an excellent Cabernet-Shiraz, plus Chateau Reynella were also famous for producing Clarets. 

 

In the 1950’s, the famous Max Schubert (Penfolds' First Chief Winemaker), championed the blend, using it to create wines like the 1962 Bin 60A, which became a favourite on the world stage. Bin 60A became Penfolds' most successful wine, winning 19 trophies and 33 gold. 

 

Although Australia makes excellent wine from Cabernet and Shiraz blends, it cannot receive credit for the successful marriage. French scientist Dr. Jules Guyot was influential in creating the blend in the 1860s. Although the practice of blending Syrah from the north of Rhône and Cabernet from the Bordeaux regions became popular in France, it did not last long. Europe's appellation system brought an end to the famous blend. 

 

On May 6, 1919, the French Law for the Protection of the Place of Origin “Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée’ was passed, and Appellations were born. The law specifies in which region and with which grapes, a wine can be made, thus making blending between regions and certain grape varieties illegal. 

 

Never again in a single bottle could Bordeaux Cabernet and Rhône Syrah come together. Sad news for France, but great news for Australians. 

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