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The first time I saw white vines due to sunscreen, was here in Barossa Valley, at the first winery where I worked. I was very impressed with this whole idea, so I have done a lot of research on this topic, and today I would like to share a little bit of this knowledge with you.

"You put sunscreen on your kids when they go out in the sun, so we put it on our grapevines. That just goes on like a normal spray", says Bruce Tyrrell, the chief executive of Tyrrell's Wines.

Tyrrell is a winery located in Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia, that has been producing wine since the 1860’s. Mr Bruce Tyrrell realized several years ago that he would need to find ways to ensure that his grapes could survive in Australia's increasingly hot and dry climate. Then, over five years ago, the winery decided to adopt the so-called “Agricultural Sunscreen”.

So what is “Agricultural sunscreen”?

To start, let's talk about the ozone layer above Australia, which has a strong impact on the UV rays transmitted to the grapes. Australians have known about a “hole in the ozone layer above Australia” for years. Technically, the ozone layer around the mid-latitude is depleted above Australia, and a hole often occurs above Antarctica during Spring. The result of both of these, for Australia, is more UV radiation reaching the Earth, which is why many winegrowers take the decision to protect their vines with “Agricultural Sunscreen” in the years where temperatures exceed 45 degrees Celsius.

Very high temperatures can cause serious damage to the vineyards, and fruit can shrivel or suffer sunburn. High temperatures can also affect the ripening of the grapes - if the vine suffers from too much heat it begins to transpire a lot, so to protect the plant from running out of water it can stop photosynthesis, thus stopping the ripening of the grapes, making the harvest period longer or causing harvests with bitter flavours because of the lack of ripe grapes. All of these impact on the quality and yield of the vineyards.

One of the best practices to combat this problem in the vineyards is the use of a kaolin clay-based sunscreen, which helps to reflect direct sunlight or UV light, thus protecting the fruit from sunburn and damage caused by thermal stress.

According to wine grower and agronomist Warren Burgess from Langhorne Creek, Australia:

"With the range of practices that we have started to employ here, we're finding that we are mitigating some of that risk associated with some of these extreme days."

Australia once again surprises with their viticulture practices, guaranteeing the quality of its wines even in difficult years.

 

 

 

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I often find myself in discussions with wine lovers about the benefits of screw caps versus corks. These discussions can last for hours, haha. Now before I start here, I want to explain that like everything in life, both closure methods (and others not mentioned here) have their strengths and weaknesses.

Living in Australia I have learned the benefits of the screw cap, and now defend it strongly. The argument, however, should not be about the type of closure, but rather its effect on the wine.

 

So what are the effects?
Why are some wines bottled with a cork and others with a screw cap?

I work in a winery in Australia, where its two most iconic wines are premium wines where one is under cork and the other under screw cap, so people ask me these types of questions every day - hence why I wanted to write this post.

The first wine is elegant, with floral aromas and a delicate structure. While the wine benefits from the interaction of oxygen with the wine, the tertiary flavours that then develop can quickly overpower the delicate notes in this wine. A screw cap is used to provide a low OTR (Oxygen Transmission Rate), meaning that oxygen can enter and produce these tertiary flavours, but that it happens slowly, and the wine retains it delicacy longer.

The other wine is a stronger, more powerful wine, with primary flavours that aren’t easily overpowered as the wine ages. Allowing a higher OTR allows the tannins to smooth out more quickly, while adding layers of complexity to the wine. If this wine were to be put under screwcap it would need decades for the same results.

As you can see, there are good reasons why each has been put under the closure mechanism that it has. That said, it does not mean that the other option could not have been used – it would simply alter the time needed to effect the same changes to the wine. As they are, both wines have great quality and ageing potential.


Is it true that every wine under cork has ageing potential?
Are screw caps only for cheap wines, and not for wines with ageing potential?

Of course not, many inexpensive wines exist around the world under cork, plus there are different types of cork. There are some types of plastic corks and some agglomerated corks (when cork granules are glued together), that are cheaper and offer limited protection from oxygen ingress, thus are only suitable for wines to be consumed soon after purchase.

Know that there are many premium and super premium wines in Australia which are bottled with screw cap. Research by the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) shows that the screw cap ensures the continuity of wine equal to or better than the cork stopper.

It’s also good to note that different types of screw caps exist. Traditional screw caps made from tin was impermeable to oxygen, which can lead to reductive characteristics. Newer types of screw caps made from “Saran” or “Saranex” allow a small intake of oxygen that increases the OTR and allows the tertiary flavours of aged wines to slowly develop.

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This week was an intense week of Italian wine tastings, which ended up inspiring me to write this new article for my blog.

 

Whenever I publish a photo of a Nero d’Avola, Sagrantino, Fiano or similar, produced here in Australia, I always get the same questions - for example, “Do Australian wines made from Italian grape varieties have the same characteristics as wines made in Italy?”

 

It is important to start with that famous word in the wine world called “terroir”, which means that different soils, climates and wine production techniques will result in wines with different personalities and characteristics. Wines from Italy generally have a more earthy appearance, compared to wines made from Italian grapes here in Australia.

 

A large part of the success of these wines in Australia comes from the Australian winemakers, who through their own interpretation, while maintaining the characteristics of the grape, create their own unique style. Instead of comparing these wines to Italian wines when you’re drinking them, just enjoy the different sensations that a new style can offer.

 

Australia has a great diversity of soils and climates, so instead of only suiting the French varieties that were originally planted here, it is to be expected that different grapes would also be able to adapt well. And when it comes to “Global Warming”, Australia has been taking measures to minimize the effects of climate change in the vineyards, and one of them is to invest in other grape varieties. Today we can find many vineyards planted with the Sangiovese grape, for example, which is also the most planted grape in Italy. Although the number of plantations of Italian varieties is still relatively small in Australia, the trend is that this number will grow in the coming years.

 

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) reveals that climate change projections for Australia are an increase in temperature and a reduction in annual precipitation over the next 10 years. Many producers are betting on grapes that can withstand extreme heat, like grapes from southern Italy. In addition, Italian grape varieties generally have more natural acidity, so interest has grown enormously in these grape varieties here in Australia. Wine regions such as McLaren Vale, SA; King Valley, VIC; Riverland, SA and Granite Belt, QLD provide good examples of Italian grape varieties in Australia


What differentiates Australia from its competitors, is that wine producers are open to venturing out and trying new things, making Australia one of the most exciting wine countries in the world.

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In 2016 I moved to Australia, and when I arrived at the airport in Sydney, I still remember thinking that I must have hopped on the plane, and now I was in the wrong country. I’ve always had in my mind that all Australians were blond, with blue eyes and white skin - just like the English. I never imagined the diversity of cultures I was about to get to know, including one which I’ve ended up getting to know very well, because you cannot work in the Australian wine industry, without learning something about the Chinese culture.

 

To all the Chinese customers and friends who have passed through, or are still in, my life, thank you very much for sharing your culture with me, and teaching me some of your language. “Xièxiè” - Thank you

 

Working in the wine industry in Australia, I soon realized that China is an important market for Australia, not only in wine, but also in the export of other products, and education - a large number of university students studying in Australia are Chinese.

 

According to statista.com, in an article called ‘Number of Chinese students in Australia from 2010 to 2019, by education sector’ published by Thomas Hinton on July 28, 2020, “There were more than 260,000 Chinese students enrolled in Australia in 2019, with approximately 160,000 enrolled in the higher education sector alone”.

 

Since the beginning of this year, the relationship between the Australian and Chinese governments has been the cause of several newspaper and magazine articles. In the wine market, this disagreement between China and Australia, is having a huge impact, and could not have come at a worse time - 2020 has been a year of many challenges for the country.

 

We started the year with fires, which caused massive financial damage to many wine producers, then the restrictions of Covid-19, starting in the middle of the harvest, and to close with a flourish, the Chinese government launched an investigation into Australian wines that are exported to the country.

 

The CADA (China Alcoholic Drinks Association), requested the MOFCOM - Ministry of Commerce People's Republic of China - launch an Anti-Dumping investigation. This investigation began on August 18, 2020 and is expected to end in August 2021, but can be extended by another 6 months. Recently, on 27 November 2020, MOFCOM announced that the Chinese government would impose temporary ‘Anti-Dumping Security Deposits’ with rates between 107.1% and 212.1% on Australian wines, before finalizing anti-dumping investigations.

 

But what is an Anti-Dumping investigation?

 

Dumping is a process, in which a company exports a product, at a significantly lower price, than the price it normally charges in its domestic market. An anti-dumping duty is a protectionist tariff that a domestic government imposes on imported products. Goods in which, the government believes, prices are below a fair market value.

 

China is accusing Australia of selling very cheap wines to the country, and that this is hurting their domestic market. The Chinese industry body says that in the past four years, the market share of Chinese wine has dropped from around 75% to just under 50%, and that this is because the sale of Australian wine is being poured out (wines sold at low prices) to China. That is why it imposed an import deposit scheme (tariffs), ranging from 107.1% to 212.1% on Australian wines.

 

According to Wine Australia:


"We are sure, that Australian wine is not being dumped on the Chinese market, and that our winegrowers and producers do not benefit from any subsidies"

 

The curious thing is that the Chinese market is the most important market for Australia for "value" - that is, China has been the best market for the sales of Premium Wines in the country. Last year, Australian wine exports to China were valued at $1.26 billion Australian dollars. In addition, Australia exports about 60% of its total production and about 39% of that has China as its destination.

 

Australia's wine sector is fully collaborating with the investigations. The government recognizes that export growth is necessary to maintain jobs and prosperity in the Australian market.

 

Tony Battaglene, Chief Executive of Australian Grape & Wine, thinks this is a good wake-up call for Australia to develop export opportunities in other markets, and not be so reliant on China.

 

Australia needs to make a decision, as soon as possible, to protect the sector from being hit by “supply and demand”, which with nowhere for our wine to go, would drive down prices in the domestic market and have a major impact on the economy. Maybe a good plan B for Australia, is to take Mr Battaglene’s advice and look beyond different oceans… maybe towards South America..?

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I work for a winery in Barossa Valley, which produces two fantastic wines that use Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes for their blends. The story I’m about to tell is one that I love sharing with the tourists who come to visit us and taste our wines, and today I decided to share this story with you. 



Many Australians used to refer to the Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (or Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz) blend as Claret, but the Claret nomenclature was actually the name used in Bordeaux for any red table wine. In my wanderings through various wine regions around the world, I have never come across the blend of Shiraz & Cabernet Sauvignon before and would say that it is a typical Australian blend. 

 

Cabernet Sauvignon is often used in blends - I've found several Malbec in Argentina with a percentage of Cabernet Sauvignon; many Super Toscano blends from Italy also use Cabernet Sauvignon, like Tignanello for example; one of the most famous wines in Spain, Vega Sicília Único, uses a percentage of Cabernet Sauvignon in its wines, which are predominantly made with the Tinto Fino grape; not to mention Bordeaux wines, which are also blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec, Petit Verdot and Cabernet Franc - but never Shiraz. 

 

In general, blending is used to address varietal deficiencies, by adding a wine with the missing traits. However, according to Kevin Glastonbury, winemaker at Yalumba, with this blend this is not the case at all. He explains 



"It is the case that the sum of the parts is greater than the whole". "It is about the marriage of two varieties that creates an entirely new wine." 

Kevin Glastonbury 

 

 

The term Claret refers to easy-to-drink red wines with limited skin contact and short fermentation times, that were made and exported from Bordeaux to England. In France they were called Vinum Clarum, Vin Clar or Clareit. But the British invented the term Claret, and so the nomenclature arrived in Australia. 

 

With a history that can be traced back to the late 1800s, the Yalumba winery made Claret in the 1880s and sent it to India to be enjoyed by the British Raj. In 1890, French winemaker Edmund Mazure (creator of the red Sparkling Shiraz) started his own winery and made an excellent Cabernet-Shiraz, plus Chateau Reynella were also famous for producing Clarets. 

 

In the 1950’s, the famous Max Schubert (Penfolds' First Chief Winemaker), championed the blend, using it to create wines like the 1962 Bin 60A, which became a favourite on the world stage. Bin 60A became Penfolds' most successful wine, winning 19 trophies and 33 gold. 

 

Although Australia makes excellent wine from Cabernet and Shiraz blends, it cannot receive credit for the successful marriage. French scientist Dr. Jules Guyot was influential in creating the blend in the 1860s. Although the practice of blending Syrah from the north of Rhône and Cabernet from the Bordeaux regions became popular in France, it did not last long. Europe's appellation system brought an end to the famous blend. 

 

On May 6, 1919, the French Law for the Protection of the Place of Origin “Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée’ was passed, and Appellations were born. The law specifies in which region and with which grapes, a wine can be made, thus making blending between regions and certain grape varieties illegal. 

 

Never again in a single bottle could Bordeaux Cabernet and Rhône Syrah come together. Sad news for France, but great news for Australians. 

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Introduction 

Many of you have been following my work for some time, and you probably don't know where I started. In 2018, after 5 months living outside of Australia, tasting wines every day in Europe, comparing prices, qualities and the marketplace, I realized the value of Australian wines. I did an event with Australian wines later that same year in Brazil, and that's when it all started.  An innovative idea came to my mind and that’s when my new venture was born.

Returning home to Australia, I got a vintage job in a small-ish winery in Barossa Valley and started to get more involved with wine production. I liked it so much that afterwards I went to work for one of the biggest wineries, to get to know, up close and personal, the differences in production techniques between small and large wineries here in Australia. After the harvest, I started putting my plans into practice. But... where to start? And how?

Well, I started with the idea of ​​doing some market research, with wine lovers and sommeliers who live in Brazil. I wanted to know this market and to know the Brazilian interest in Australian wines. I created a survey and circulated it in several wine groups in WhatsApp and on Facebook. I believe that several of you who participated in that survey may be reading this text now, and if you are, I will take the opportunity to thank all participants, THANK YOU! And you must certainly be curious to know the result of this study, so I decided to share this text with you…

 

What is the future of Australian wine in Brazil?

This text is based on a survey conducted by wine expert Priscilla Hennekam in 2019.
Interviewee Profile:
Brazilians from different regions of Brazil, professionals in the field and wine lovers, who participate of wine events and social wine groups in Brazil.
1. The wine consumption of this group monthly is:

20.1% consume 1-3 bottles

38.5% consume about 4-7 bottles

20.1% consume 7-10 bottles

21.3% more than 10 bottles

 

  

2. Most participants, 56.3%, prefer red wines, 32.0% love all styles, 4.9% prefer whites and 6.8% prefer others.


 


Comment: I did another survey in 2011, for my university thesis, and comparing these results to the survey 9 years ago, I realized that Brazilians have changed their tastes. In the 2011 survey, there were a significant number of people who preferred sweet wines. In this 2019 questionnaire I realized that most Brazilians who drink wine frequently in Brazil, prefer red wine. And the second largest proportion of the people who participated in the survey, drink all types of wines, which shows a great advance for Brazil, in wine consumption in general.

3. There are many styles of wine on the market, so I asked the following question: What is the preferred wine style of Brazilians?

This was the result: 53.8% prefer different styles of wine, 18.3% choose elegant and delicate wines, 16.3% like medium-bodied and/or full-bodied wines, predominantly with secondary aromas, 9.6% prefer young, easy-drinking wines, only 1% like full-bodied wines with a very well ripened fruit profile and the final 1% prefer others styles. 


 


Comment: Another breakthrough in wine consumption in Brazil - more than half of consumers prefer different styles, without prejudice, understanding the different wines available on the market, leaving behind the concept that a good wine must be full-bodied with powerful tannins.

4. What do you notice first when buying wine? 40.4% observe the quality, 26.0% the region and 17.3% observe the price with the remaining of 16.3% split between ratings and points, pairing with food, cost-to-benefit ratios or other.



  


Comment: I confess that I was quite surprised that most Brazilians are more concerned with the quality of the product than the price. Although 17% of respondents are still more concerned with price.

 

The Consumption of Australian Wines in Brazil


1. The question was, if Brazilians would buy an Australian wine, we had 97% that said “Yes”. Of the other 3%, one-third answered “Rarely, very few available” and two-thirds had never tasted an Australian wine.


 


Comment: We note that there is an interest in the Brazilian market to discover the quality of Australian wines.

2. Here we ask if our interviewees have already consumed an Australian wine, and the result was:



Comment: Showing that for people who drink wine frequently, almost 20% of them have never had access to Australian wine. I hope to be able to change these numbers, and make quality Australian wines more accessible to everyone in Brazil. Thus promoting a new experience for 19.8% of the interviewed Brazilians.

  •  For the respondents who answered “Yes”, we asked from which Australian wine region they had a chance to taste wines. The majority, 36.9%, answered South Australia, while 23.8% did not remember.

Comment: South Australia is responsible for the most wine production in Australia, it was already expected that the majority of participants would find this region in evidence on the wine shelves in Brazil. 23.8% did not remember which region, we concluded a lack of knowledge about Australian wines in Brazil. 


3. In this next topic, we asked those who answered “No”, why not?. The results were: most, 40.0% responded because they never had the opportunity; the second largest group, 35.0%, answered because they have no knowledge about Australian wines and do not know what to buy; a further 20.0% didn't know that Australia produced wines and; 5.0% said that there aren't many Australian wines available.


 


Comment: Based on this data, we can say that there is a lack of education and information about Australian wines in Brazil, leading consumers to choose wines from other countries.

4. We addressed the theme of events in the next question, asking participants how many of them have been to an Australian wine event in Brazil. 83.6% said "No", and only 16.4% said they had already been to an Australian wine event.


  


Comment: Just confirming the lack of events to promote Australian wines in Brazil.


5. We asked why our interviewees have never been to an Australian wine event in Brazil. 75.3% had never heard of any Australian wine events and the other great portion, 20.0%, have never had the opportunity, since there are few Australian wine events in Brazil.



 


Comment: Most respondents stated that they had never heard of any Australian wine events, explaining the population's lack of knowledge about wines produced in Australia. Concluding that with more events, consumption and demand for Australian wines in Brazil would likely increase.

7. In this question we were more direct - we asked if they really are interested in learning about Australian wines. More than half, with 55.3% answered “Yes, I would love it” and confessed that they do not have much knowledge on the subject. Another 38.8% said “Yes” as they are already fans of Australian wines.


 

Comment: We can affirm that there is interest among the Brazilian population in learning about and consuming Australian wines. Unfortunately, Brazilians have difficult access to information about Australian wines. From my experience promoting these wines in Brazil, I believe this also largely due to the language barrier, as most information about Australian wine is in English, and unfortunately, only a small portion of the population can communicate in English in Brazil, which explains the consumption of these wines being low in Brazil.


8. This is the last graph of my survey, where we asked our interviewees if they had opportunities to taste, know and learn more about Australian wines, would they consume more of these wines in Brazil. 81.6% answered “Yes”, 17.5% answered “Maybe” and less than 1% said “No”.

  

Comment: More than 80% said yes, concluding that Brazil may be a new market for Australia, if there is an incentive by the Australian government in promoting its wines in South America.

 


Conclusion

  

Based on my research conducted in 2019, we concluded that Brazilians are curious and open to the consumption of wines produced in Australia. However, the consumption of Australian wines in Brazil is still small due to the lack of knowledge, language barrier and the lack of events that promote Australian wines.

 

The future of Australian wines will depend on efforts by the Australian government to incentive and invest in new markets and importers to bet on something new. South 

America is perhaps a new market to be explored by Australia.



Survey conducted by Wine Specialist Priscilla Hennekam in 2019.

© Copyright. Hennekam Wines 2020 

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