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The story of Tokay in Australia

Paramount DP 64 Tokay is a fortified wine from the Muscadelle grape from the region of Rutherglen, Victoria. It...

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Paramount DP 64 Tokay is a fortified wine from the Muscadelle grape from the region of Rutherglen, Victoria.
 It is a blend from different vintages, including a small portion of the 1922 vintage; but overall has an average age of 32 years.

The story of Tokay in Australia can be a little confusing, at least in terms of nomenclature. The name Tokay was used for this style of wines from Rutherglen in the 1800’s and, although no definitive reason is known as to why, it can be assumed that the first producers of this style of wine felt they bore similarities to the great Tokaji wines of Hungary produced with the Furmint and Harselevelu grapes.


In the 1970’s, an ampelographer (a botanist that specializes in identifying and classifying grapevines) identified Rutherglen's Tokay wine as using a white grape variety grown in Bordeaux called Muscadelle. At that time, Rutherlgen winemakers had a 120-year history of producing “Tokay”; and so it made sense to continue using the “Tokay” nomenclature for their wines.


However, by the beginning of the 21st century, the use of the word Tokay in labels would be eliminated due to its similarity to the Hungarian term Tokaji. A major research project was undertaken to develop a new name; and thus a new nomenclature was born for Rutherglen wines; “Topaque”. The actual prohibition for use of the term “Tokay” was not applied until 2016; therefore, you can still find wine labelled as Rutherglen Topaque or Tokay.



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["blo_link"]=> string(60) "how-covid-is-impacting-the-hospitality-industry-in-australia" ["blo_news"]=> string(5887) "

Australia has been very lucky with COVID, with very low rates of infections and deaths. While some of this may be due to its geographic isolation from the rest of the world, it is also largely due to government lockdowns. Many areas, including Sydney & Melbourne, are suffering lockdowns again now. While this has had many impacts on the economy, one specific problem is that it has produced a shortage of workers for the hospitality industry. It is due to this, that I decided to write this article, after a few people have reached out to me to ask if I am, or anyone I know is, looking for a job as a sommelier.




Australia is a big, relatively wealthy country, and although the borders are still closed and tourists cannot visit, similarly, Aussies cannot leave. So, we are seeing a big demand with Aussies looking to go out, and restaurants and events are frequently booked out. This seems fantastic for venue owners, and amazing for the economy, but restaurants are suffering a different problem. The majority of people who were working in this sector were international students, or skilled workers from overseas. With borders closed, these people cannot enter and take these positions.

“More than 46.000 hospitality jobs are currently advertised but industry leaders say the real shortage may be much higher.” A shortage of skilled workers from overseas is threatening the recovery of Australia's hospitality sector (sbs.com.au)

Many Aussies working in the hospitality industry have lost their jobs due to COVID, and many are not keen to return, feeling there is no security there right now. Every time a new lockdown commences, businesses close their doors and workers lose their jobs. To try to combat these problems, the government has removed restrictions on foreign students who remain in the country, allowing them to work more than the usual limit of 20 hours per week… but it is not enough. Restaurant managers, chefs and sommeliers are in demand in Australia. Below are some messages I have received recently by LinkedIn.


With all of this in mind, and thinking what I can do to help, I have launched the first Australian Wine Course in the Portuguese language - a short course that gives an overview of Australian Wines and the Australian Wine Market. It is designed to be one of the steps to help Brazilians, like me, to work in the hospitality industry in Australia. Having knowledge about Australian wines is a great advantage and is desirable for a lot of Australian companies. I really hope I can help both sides with this course, Australia with more skilled workers, and Brazilians to have more opportunities in Australia.

More information about the course can be found here: https://cursodevinhosaustralianos.com

 

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"climate-change-problems-in-australia" ["blo_news"]=> string(17239) "


Duncan Lloyd - Coriole's winemaker 

Earlier this year, I did a research project about the Australian wine market for the final assessment of my WSET Diploma, where I interviewed many wine producers and asked them what problems they are facing now and what problems worry them for the future. They all mentioned the same thing – climate change. That’s the reason I chose this topic, to explain one of the biggest problems wine industry is facing.

“Climate change is a long term [problem] – and maybe short term some of the time as in droughts and major heatwaves, and you know, can cause really short-term hiccups.”

-  Chester Osborn - Chief Winemaker and Viticulturist at d’Arenberg Wines


How can climate change impact the wine industry?

Climate change is already affecting the wine industry today, changes to weather patterns are causing more extreme events that can generate problems throughout the growing season, plus ripening times are changing, affecting harvesting dates - a trend that could be a big problem in the future. Heatwaves and droughts have strongly impacted crops and extreme rainfall has been affecting grape growers, causing floods, erosion, berry splitting and fungal diseases.

In 2019 and 2020 Australian producers had very low yields, I still remember the winery I worked for in the 2019 vintage lost 50% of their production - we had a very short vintage that year. The biggest problem we faced, aside from the small crop, was the winery capacity. I didn’t stop to think about the many problems that climate change can cause for the wine industry until I worked as a Cellar Hand. We had very strong heatwaves during the ripening season that year, which temporarily stopped photosynthesis of the vines and consequently the grape maturation. Then when the temperature went down, the grapes started ripening again, but the problem was that from this stage, all the different varieties started to ripen together, reaching the required levels of sugars and ripeness at the same time. The capacity of the winery was a big issue, because all the grapes arrived at the winery at the same time, and we didn’t have enough tanks to ferment them all concurrently.

However, this was not the worst scenario that I have seen in the wine industry. In 2020, just before COVID, much of the Australian wine industry suffered from bushfires. Many producers lost some, or all, of their vineyards and either couldn’t make wine or had dramatically reduced volumes in that year, and depending on severity, it sometimes even impacted subsequent years. Those that lost everything had to replant, losing even more time and money. An unlucky few also lost buildings, current stock and even back-vintages and museum releases.

Read more about the bushfires here: Life, Vineyards and Dreams - Hennekam Wines

 

What are Australian wine producers doing?

Wine producers have been changing the way they manage their vineyards, for example using mulches to conserve water and reduce the need for irrigation, reducing the exposure of fruit on west-facing canopies and swapping out grapes for more drought and heat tolerant varieties, such as Sagrantino, Mataro, Grenache, etc.

 

How can wine producers save money and reduce the impact of climate change in the long term?

I believe that ‘precision viticulture’ will play a key role in the future for Australian wineries. The more I learn about precision viticulture, more I believe this will be the next big move for the wine industry. The first time I came across with the term ‘precision viticulture’ was at the beginning of last year during the first module of WSET 4. Since then, I have been researching a lot about this, as the new project I am consulting for in Brazil is using these techniques. However, I never thought about sharing this subject on my blog until recently, after my talk for the CSIRO, where I noticed that this subject interests a lot of people.

 

The aim is to create data using GPS, GIS, sensors, satellite, etc and then to use that data to enhance viticulture in turn creating sustainable farming; increasing productivity and saving money over the long term. This technology allows for more efficient use of water, fertilizers, labour, machinery, etc because you can have precise information about each row or even per vine, helping vineyard managers in control crop estimation, fruit maturity, pest and disease monitoring.

 

“For a challenging year with lack of winter rainfall and hot dry growing conditions, it was a good year to have the SAP-FLOW sensors. I had positive results over the 4-6 sites for yields and water savings all 6 sites there were savings of water.”

-  Travis Coombe - Viticulture Manager at Two Hands Wines.


The world is struggling with water shortages, and saving water is great for the environment, but it also means saving money as well.


“If you can reduce water consumption by 1000 gallons per month, you can save on average about $140 a year on your water bill.”

                                                                                                     -  Money Saving Water Conservation 

                                                                 (http://www.isustainableearth.com/water-conservation/money-saving-water-conservation-tips)


 

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“Luxury can be an intellectual experience.”
Master Sommelier Clément Robert

Today I am writing about and making connections between the things that I love: wine and food, of course; music, as 95% of Brazilians love to sing and dance; plus, science and technology! Yes, you read correctly, science and technology.

I am fascinated with technology, and I agree with Clement Robert in his interview at The Drinks Business - pairing wine with food is not a simple thing, there are so many aspects involved. He explains that the customer might be interested only in the food, or only in the wine, and won’t have the same experience. The intellect has a big impact on the multi-sensory experience, even more so with the expensive experiences - the client will expect something else to add value - and that’s where science and technology play a role, enhancing the whole wine and food experience.

I watched the presentation, “The Perfect Meal” by Charles Spence, a professor of Experimental Psychology at Oxford University and head of the Crossmodal Research Lab. In it, he talks about his research, which I separate into different topics to be able to explain, in a simple way, about how science & technology can help the wine & hospitality industries.



Charles Spence

Expectation

Meeting customers’ high expectations has been a challenge for fine dining restaurants - with so many technologies around, our brain is constantly changing, and we are always wanting more. That’s why businesses can’t afford to be scared of change, and need to accept innovations to be able to achieve success. According to Charles Spence, “Technology can enhance the dining experience”. He explains how a business can create a unique, stimulating, engaging and unforgettable experience by using different tools. It isn’t just about excellent food, excellent wine or even a perfect match between both – it’s about expectation.

Emotional

Expectations then drive an emotional response, which has a multi-sensorial effect on the wine and food experience. The other day I was looking at my friend’s Instagram stories, and saw that a winery in Brazil was producing personalized sparkling wine labels with the names of a few important people in the wine industry, which they sent to those people as a special gift. Coca-Cola is doing the same thing, you can find your name on a bottle of Coca-Cola! This causes a sensation of feeling special, of privilege, which is one of the reasons the final consumer might buy expensive wines, or pay more for a wine and food experience.

Brain records

Now we understand what is involved in wine and food experiences, we know what we need to focus on to cause a memorable experience, something that will imprint on your brain. Charles explained that during his research he created 3 different scenarios where the visual and audio environment was controlled, and varied, influencing people’s mood and changing their perception of taste. He explained that things can taste sweeter or more bitter depending on your mood. That’s where science can help us to meet high expectations, because the brain is unconsciously influenced by outside surroundings.

“A growing body of scientific evidence now shows that what people taste when evaluating a wine, and how much they enjoy the experience, can be influenced by music. The latest research now shows that by playing the “right” music, one can also impact specific sensory-discriminative aspects of tasting as well. Music has been shown to influence the perceived acidity, sweetness, fruitiness, astringency, and length of wine.” - Charles Spence

Of course, someone like me, who loves research, new ideas, meeting new people, and exceeding expectations couldn’t resist incorporating this research into my latest presentations, where I have been providing a “Wine and Music Experience”. And do you know what? People absolutely love it! I can’t wait to do more, and create new wine experiences.


I will leave you with an experience suggested by Clark Smith, for you do at home in the next time you drink a Cabernet Sauvignon.

“Cabernet Sauvignon, taste it and take note of the level of astringency. Boot up iTunes, put on the Doors’ “People Are Strange” and taste again. You’ll see the wine smooth out. Then put on “When The Saints Go Marching” (Louis Armstrong’s Golden Legends version will work). The wine will become almost undrinkably harsh.” - Clark Smith

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Zinfandel is not a common grape variety in Australia, but I have found good examples in a few wine regions. I have a tried a few that I like in Margaret River and McLaren Vale, plus the winery where I am working, Hentley Farm, surprised me quite a lot with their Zinfandel.

I confess that I haven’t had a lot of contact with Zinfandel before – being from Brazil, then living in Argentina, my contact with Zinfandel was very limited. That’s probably why when I started working at Hentley Farm, this grape variety got my attention, plus now studying the WSET Diploma I have been trying a lot of different examples of Primitivo (the Italian name for this grape). I felt inspired to organize a Zinfandel tasting with my WSET friends and even to share this experience with my co-workers at Hentley Farm Wines.

The experience was fantastic. I selected 3 Zinfandels: one from the USA, one from Italy and one from Australia, then with my WSET team we did a blind tasting, and we all have agreed on these tasting notes:

Murphy Goode Sonoma County Liars Dice Zinfandel - 2014

This wine is already 7 years old, which explains the medium garnet colour in this wine. Compared to the other wines, this wine in particular we noticed the evidence of flavours coming from the oak, such as vanilla, coconut, charred oak and smoke plus also raisin, dried rose petals and coffee grounds coming from the time it has spent in the bottle. It is a high alcohol wine, at 15.5%, it has fine mineral tannins and a soft and round finish.

Cardone Primaio IGP Puglia Primitivo - 2019

This wine displays a bright ruby colour and being younger it was showing more pungent notes on the nose with very ripe cherries, plum, cola, fig, raisin and spice flavours. This wine is less alcoholic than the first one, has a good structure, ripe tannins and a vibrant finish. It’s a wine to drink now with your friends in the evening with a selection of cheeses from Italy - make sure you at least have one Canestrato Pugliese cheese in your selection, which is the typical cheese from the region and features prominent spicy flavours that complement the spicy flavours of the wine.

Hentley Farm Barossa Valley Zinfadel - 2018

Compared to the other two wines, we found this Zinfandel more elegant, with fresh berries and sweet spices, along with dried herbs and savoury notes. It has a medium body, well-balanced acidity with smooth tannins and a great fruit expression that lingers. We made a video with the winemaker talking about the challenges of growing Zinfandel in the Barossa Valley, Australia. Watch it here: Winederful Season 2 Episode1 Bonus - Hentley Farm - The Australian Zinfandel with all its elegance! -YouTube

 

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With COVID preventing international travel, I decided it was time to go and explore the wine regions of Tasmania, Australia’s smallest and most southern state. Despite exporting less than 1% of their wines, Tasmania is gaining a reputation for outstanding cool-climate wines. This, combined with global warming, has led to explosive growth in the Tasmanian wine industry, which now boasts 160 licensed producers and over 2,000 hectares of vineyards in 7 different wine regions, shown below in an image from Decanter magazine.


On the first day, we drove up the East Coast, and stopped into Spring Vale, Craigie Knowe & Freycinet for tastings and stopped at Devil’s Corner for a pizza, a glass of sparkling and to enjoy the beautiful view. The difficult drive was worth it for the spectacular scenery and delicious wines. The wineries of the East Coast produce about 20% of Tasmanian wines and are famous for pinot noir, chardonnay and riesling, however the temperature and dry conditions also provide growing conditions suitable for sauvignon blanc, pinot gris and cabernet sauvignon, which are all gaining recognition.

The second day we drove up to Pipers River to visit Delamere, where we caught staff relaxing a little after rushing to finish their harvest the day before, to beat the rains that greeted us on arrival. Contrary to popular belief, Tasmania is actually quite dry, with Hobart being the second driest capital city in the country after Adelaide. Of all Tasmania’s wine producing areas, Pipers River is the wettest, and Delamere did acknowledge that they needed to be attentive to disease risks. That said, the climate suits their sparkling wines so well that they are putting most of their efforts towards sparkling production, and they’re being rewarded for their efforts. I was very impressed with the wines, and indeed every other winery we visited said that Delamere was their favourite sparkling producer. Other wineries in the region are also well known for sparkling wines, including Jansz, Clover Hill & Arras (Bay of Fires).


After lunch we stopped at Josef Chromy (below), a well-known producer located in the Tamar Valley. We were told that Josef Chromy possess vineyards just 2 plots deep, but running 2.5km from their cellar door and winery to the south. Near the winery, their lower plots produce aromatic whites, and their upper slopes have perfect soil for the pinot noir and chardonnay that go into their sparkling, while to the south the soil becomes more rocky, and grows the grapes for their table wines.

 

On our final day we visited Stefano Lubiana in Derwent Valley, and then Pooley in Coal River Valley. Both of these regions have the right combination of temperature, humidity and soils to produce exceptional pinot noir, and they also produce notable sparklings and other table wines.



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